The Nobel Prize Laureates in Physics
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For press announcements, Nobel lectures of the laureates,
and their biographies, see
http://www.nobelprize.org/physics/laureates/
from which the present list was compiled
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These lectures (even the old ones) are very worthwhile to study --
they can be regarded as a sort of lively answer to the question:
What has been important enough in physics to deserve a big prize?
2021 Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann and Giorgio Parisi
for groundbreaking contributions to our understanding of complex
systems:
- for the physical modelling of Earth's climate, quantifying
variability and reliably predicting global warming
- for the discovery of the interplay of disorder and fluctuations
in physical systems from atomic to planetary scales
2020 Roger Penrose, Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez
- for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust
prediction of the general theory of relativity
- for the discovery of a supermassive compact object at the
centre of our galaxy
2019 James Peebles, Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz
for contributions to our understanding of the evolution of the
universe and Earth's place in the cosmos:
- for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology
- for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star
2018 Arthur Ashkin, Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland
for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics:
- for the optical tweezers and their application to biological
systems
- for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short
optical pulses
2017 Rainer Weiss, Barry C. Barish and Kip S. Thorne
for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the
observation of gravitational waves
2016 David J. Thouless, F. Duncan M. Haldane, and J. Michael Kosterlitz
for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and
topological phases of matter
2015 Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald
for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that
neutrinos have mass
2014 Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano, and Shuji Nakamura
for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes
which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources
2013 Francois Englert and Peter W. Higgs
for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to
our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles
2012 Serge Haroche and David J. Wineland
for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and
manipulation of individual quantum systems
2011 Saul Perlmutter, Brian P. Schmidt, and Adam G. Riess
for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe
through observations of distant supernovae
2010 Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov
for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional
material graphene
2009 Charles K. Kao, Willard S. Boyle, and George E. Smith
- for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of
light in fibers for optical communication
- for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit -
the CCD sensor
2008 Yoichiro Nambu, Makoto Kobayashi, and Toshihide Maskawa
- for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken
symmetry in subatomic physics
- for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which
predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in
nature
2007 Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg
for discovering the effect underlying data storage on most hard
disks
2006 John C. Mather and George F. Smoot
for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the
cosmic microwave background radiation
2005 Roy J. Glauber, John L. Hall, and Theodor W. H"ansch
- for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence
- for their contributions to the development of laser-based
precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb
technique
2004 David J. Gross, H. David Politzer, and Frank Wilczek
for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the
strong interaction 1973-74
2003 Alexei A. Abrikosov, Vitaly L. Ginzburg, and Anthony J. Leggett
for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors
and superfluids
2002 Raymond Davis Jr., Masatoshi Koshiba, and Riccardo Giacconi
for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular
for the detection of cosmic neutrinos
2001 Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle, and Carl E. Wieman
for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute
gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of
the properties of the condensates
2000 Zhores I. Alferov, Herbert Kroemer, and Jack S. Kilby
for basic work on information and communication technology:
- for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in
high-speed- and opto-electronics
- for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit
1999 Gerardus 't Hooft and Martinus J.G. Veltman
for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions
in physics 1971
1998 Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Störmer, and Daniel C. Tsui
for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with
fractionally charged excitations
1997 Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, and William D. Phillips
for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light
1996 David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff, and Robert C. Richardson
for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3
1995 Martin L. Perl and Frederick Reines
for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics:
- for the discovery of the tau lepton
- for the detection of the neutrino
1994 Bertram N. Brockhouse and Clifford G. Shull
for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron
scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter:
- for the development of neutron spectroscopy
- for the development of the neutron diffraction technique
1993 Russell A. Hulse and Joseph H. Taylor Jr.
for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has
opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation
1992 Georges Charpak
for his invention and development of particle detectors,
in particular the multiwire proportional chamber
1991 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
for discovering that methods developed for studying order
phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex
forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers
1990 Jerome I. Friedman, Henry W. Kendall, and Richard E. Taylor
for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic
scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have
been of essential importance for the development of the quark
model in particle physics
1989 Norman F. Ramsey, Hans G. Dehmelt, and Wolfgang Paul
- for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and
its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks
- for the development of the ion trap technique
1988 Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz, and Jack Steinberger
for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet
structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino
1987 J. Georg Bednorz and K. Alex Müller
for their important break-through in the discovery of
superconductivity in ceramic materials
1986 Ernst Ruska, Gerd Binnig, and Heinrich Rohrer
- for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design
of the first electron microscope
- for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope
1985 Klaus von Klitzing
for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect
1984 Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer
for their decisive contributions to the large project,
which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z,
communicators of weak interaction
1983 Subramanyan Chandrasekhar and William A. Fowler
- for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of
importance to the structure and evolution of the stars
- for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear
reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical
elements in the universe
1982 Kenneth G. Wilson
for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase
transitions 1971
1981 Nicolaas Bloembergen, Arthur L. Schawlow, and Kai M. Siegbahn
- for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy
- for his contribution to the development of high-resolution
electron spectroscopy
1980 James Cronin and Val Fitch
for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry
principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons
1979 Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam, and Steven Weinberg
for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and
electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles,
including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current
1967
1978 Pyotr Kapitsa, Arno Penzias, and Robert Woodrow Wilson
- for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of
low-temperature physics
- for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation
1977 Philip W. Anderson, Sir Nevill F. Mott, and John H. van Vleck
for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the
electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems
1976 Burton Richter and Samuel C.C. Ting
for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary
particle of a new kind
1975 Aage N. Bohr, Ben R. Mottelson, and James Rainwater
for the discovery of the connection between collective motion
and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the
theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this
connection
1974 Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish
for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics:
Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the
aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role
in the discovery of pulsars
1973 Leo Esaki, Ivar Giaever, and Brian D. Josephson
- for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling
phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively
- for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a
supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those
phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects
1972 John Bardeen, Leon N. Cooper, and Robert Schrieffer
for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity,
usually called the BCS-theory 1957
1971 Dennis Gabor
for his invention and development of the holographic method
1970 Hannes Alfvén and Louis Néel
- for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics
with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics
- for fundamental work and discoveries concerning
antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to
important applications in solid state physics
1969 Murray Gell-Mann
for his contributions and discoveries concerning the
classification of elementary particles and their interactions
1961/2
1968 Luis Alvarez
for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics,
in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states,
made possible through his development of the technique of using
hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis
1967 Hans Bethe
for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions,
especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in
stars
1966 Alfred Kastler
for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying
Hertzian resonances in atoms
1965 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger and Richard P. Feynman
for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics,
with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary
particles 1943-47
1964 Charles H. Townes, Nicolay G. Basov and Aleksandr M. Prokhorov
for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics,
which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers
based on the maser-laser principle
1963 Eugene Wigner, Maria Goeppert-Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen
- for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and
the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery
and application of fundamental symmetry principles 1931
- for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure
1962 Lev Landau
for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially
liquid helium 1956-58
1961 Robert Hofstadter and Rudolf Mössbauer
- for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic
nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the
structure of the nucleons
- for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of
gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the
effect which bears his name
1960 Donald A. Glaser
for the invention of the bubble chamber
1959 Emilio Segrč and Owen Chamberlain
for their discovery of the antiproton
1958 Pavel A. Cherenkov, Il´ja M. Frank, and Igor Y. Tamm
for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect
1957 Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao Lee
for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws
which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary
particles 1956
1956 William B. Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter H. Brattain
for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of
the transistor effect
1955 Willis E. Lamb and Polykarp Kusch
- for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the
hydrogen spectrum
- for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the
electron
1954 Max Born and Walther Bothe
- for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially
for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction
- for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith
1953 Frits Zernike
for his demonstration of the phase contrast method,
especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope
1952 Felix Bloch and E. M. Purcell
for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic
precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith
1951 John Cockcroft and Ernest T.S. Walton
for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by
artificially accelerated atomic particles
1950 Cecil Powell
for his development of the photographic method of studying
nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with
this method
1949 Hideki Yukawa
for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of
theoretical work on nuclear forces 1934
1948 Patrick M.S. Blackett
for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method,
and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics
and cosmic radiation
1947 Edward V. Appleton
for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere
especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer
1946 Percy W. Bridgman
for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high
pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the
field of high pressure physics
1945 Wolfgang Pauli
for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the
Pauli Principle
1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi
for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties
of atomic nuclei
1943 Otto Stern
for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray
method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton
1940-1942 none
1939 Ernest Lawrence
for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for
results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial
radioactive elements
1938 Enrico Fermi
for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive
elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related
discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons
1937 Clinton Davisson and George Paget Thomson
for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons
by crystals
1936 Victor F. Hess and Carl D. Anderson
- for his discovery of cosmic radiation
- for his discovery of the positron 1932
1935 James Chadwick
for the discovery of the neutron
1934 none
1933 Erwin Schrödinger and Paul A.M. Dirac
for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory 1926
1932 Werner Heisenberg
for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which
has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of
hydrogen 1925
1931 none
1930 Venkata Raman
for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery
of the effect named after him
1929 Louis de Broglie
for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons 1923
1928 Owen Willans Richardson
for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for
the discovery of the law named after him
1927 Arthur H. Compton and C.T.R. Wilson
- for his discovery of the effect named after him
- for his method of making the paths of electrically charged
particles visible by condensation of vapour
1926 Jean Baptiste Perrin
for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter,
and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium
1925 James Franck andGustav Hertz
for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an
electron upon an atom
1924 Manne Siegbahn
for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy
1923 Robert A. Millikan
for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the
photoelectric effect
1922 Niels Bohr
for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms
and of the radiation emanating from them 1913
1921 Albert Einstein
for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his
discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect 1905
1920 Charles Edouard Guillaume
in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision
measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel
steel alloys
1919 Johannes Stark
for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the
splitting of spectral lines in electric fields
1918 Max Planck
in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement
of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta 1900
1917 Charles Glover Barkla
for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the
elements
1916 none
1915 William Bragg and Lawrence Bragg
for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means
of X-rays
1914 Max von Laue
for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals
1913 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
for his investigations on the properties of matter at low
temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid
helium
1912 Gustaf Dalén
for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction
with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys
1911 Wilhelm Wien
for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of
heat
1910 Johannes Diderik van der Waals
for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids
1909 Guglielmo Marconi and Ferdinand Braun
in recognition of their contributions to the development of
wireless telegraphy
1908 Gabriel Lippmann
for his method of reproducing colours photographically based
on the phenomenon of interference
1907 Albert A. Michelson
for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic
and metrological investigations carried out with their aid
1906 J.J. Thomson
in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and
experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by
gases
1905 Philipp Lenard
for his work on cathode rays
1904 Lord Rayleigh
for his investigations of the densities of the most important
gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these
studies
1903 Henri Becquerel, Pierre Curie and Marie Curie
- in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered
by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity
- in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered
by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered
by Professor Henri Becquerel
1902 Hendrik A. Lorentz and Pieter Zeeman
in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by
their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation
phenomena
1901 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by
the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him
<=1900 none
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