Science and Faith

Science is the truth only in matters that can be objectified; in the spiritual world, where values, goals, authority, beauty, and purpose are located, science has nothing to say. It is a poor life that is restricted to the scientific standard of truth, where you and I are nothing but a collection of atoms without meaning and purpose. Realizing the narrow-minded nature of science opens the gate to an understanding of God that complements the scientific truth and gives life, love and peace.

People travel to wonder at the height of mountains, at the huge waves of the sea, at the long courses of rivers, at the vast compass of the ocean, at the circular motion of the stars, and they pass themselves by without wondering.
(St. Augustine)

``Great are the works of the Lord; all who research them find pleasure therein (or: all who have pleasure in them want to understand them).''
(Psalm 111:2)

``But You [God] have ordered everything with measure, number and weight''
(Wisdom 11:20)

``It is not good to have zeal without knowledge, nor to be hasty and miss the way.''
(Proverbs 19:2)

``It is God's privilege to conceal things, but the kings' pride is to research them.''
(Proverbs 25:2)

``They ... explained it so that the people could understand it.''
(Nehemiah 8:8)

``Don't be childlike in matters of understanding. Instead be childlike in matters of evil, but be perfect in understanding.''
(1 Cor. 14:20)

``Consider everything. Keep the good. Avoid evil whenever you notice it.''
(1 Thess. 5:21-22)

``Make sure that no one traps you by philosophy and vain speculation based on man's teaching and the powers of the world instead of Christ. For through him you have everything in abundance.''
(Col. 2:8)

``If someone imagines he knows something - such a man has not yet realized how one ought to know.''
(1 Cor. 8:2)

``Only love has no limits. In contrast, our predictions can fail, our communication can fail, and our knowledge can fail. For our knowledge is patchwork, and our predictive power is limited. But when perfection comes, all patchwork will disappear.''
((1 Cor. 13:8-10)


These verses are my own paraphrases of the respective bible verses.
Most other bible quotations in my web pages
(apart from copies of the present ones)
are from the
Holy Bible, New International Version.


The following is a collection of links on the subject that I found worthwhile to keep for possible reference, and that I make available to others in case they might find them useful, too. In such a controversial subject, it is clear that there are many diverse views of different degrees of orthodoxy and with different concepts of God and/or science. If you are interested in what I find true don't rely on these links but rather read
My Views on the Christian Way of Life

Please help to keep this page up to date by informing me at about new or missing electronic documents, and about links that are no longer working. I have no time to keep all links living, but I'll replace or delete any outdated links that readers tell me about.

Famous Scientists and their God

There are problems to whose solution I would attach an infinitely greater importance than to those of mathematics, for example touching ethics, or our relation to God, or concerning our destiny and our future; but their solution lies wholly beyond us and completely outside the province of science.
(C.F. Gauss)

Carl Friedrich Gauss
The above quote is from:
J. R. Newman (ed.), The World of Mathematics,
Simon and Schuster, New York 1956, p. 314.

Francis Collins, Francis Collins is the former director of the National Human Genome Research Institute, and now director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). He wrote a book on The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief. See also the Review by Timothy Chow<\A>, a mathematician

Charles Townes, Nobel laurate (Physics 1964)

Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) on science and faith

Georg Cantor on God and the transfinite (see also here)

Sir Isaac Newton

''The actual infinite arises in three contexts: first when it is realized in the most complete form, in a fully independent otherworldly being, in Deo, where I call it the Absolute Infinite or simply Absolute; second when it occurs in the contingent, created world; third when the mind grasps it in abstracto as a mathematical magnitude, number or order type.'' (Georg Cantor, founder of modern set theory)

Sir Arthur Eddington (A thesis by Renate Kandler)
''Where many see science and religion as two separate and incompatible universes of discourse Eddington developed a way to conceive of them as complementary and compatible. He maintained that science addresses the measurable world and spirituality addresses the unseen world. Both find their source in the divine and are rooted in beauty, truth and especially experience.''

List of Christian Nobel laureates (from Wikipedia)

List of Christian thinkers in science (from Wikipedia)

50 Nobel laurates and other great scientists who believe in God
(free HTML and pdf book with 146 pages)

Scientists of faith (with quotes from their work)

Christianity Aiding the Development of Science
surveying among others the way some of the most influential scientists of the past regarded the relation between science and Christianity: Isaac Newton, Michael Faraday, Nicolas Copernicus, Johannes Kepler, Francis Bacon, Blaise Pascal, Robert Boyle, William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), James Clerk Maxwell, Gregor Mendel, Louis Pasteur, Benjamin Franklin, Marconi, Thomas Edison, Wernher von Braun, and some others.

Some Great Scientists and Artists who were Christians

Christian Influences in the Sciences (by Dan Graves)
Dan Graves, Scientists of Faith: Forty-Eight Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, Kregel Publ. 1996 (a recent book)

Many of The World's Greatest Thinkers Were Christians!

Great Scientists Who Were Also Creationists (by Timothy R. Stout, a physicist and pastor)
(Well, they were Christians who believed God created the universe. They were not necessarily creationists in the sense the term is used today.)
The list is attributed to the book Men of Science, Men of God by Henry Morris. (Only an abstract of the book is online)

Religious scholars (in Russian, by Michael Grinzaid)

Stephen Hawking, The Big Bang, and God (by Henry Schaefer, a quantum chemist)
The essay quotes a number of famous scientists. For example,
``Toward the end of Schrodinger's career he made this statement, "I am very astonished that the scientific picture of the real world around me is very deficient. It gives us a lot of factual information, puts all of our experience in a magnificently consistent order but it is ghastly silent about all and sundry that is really near to our heart, that really matters to us." Schrodinger believed that science has limits; it knows nothing of beautiful and ugly, good or bad, God and eternity.''

Some of Einstein's Writings on Science and Religion
``I believe in Spinoza's God who reveals Himself in the orderly harmony of what exists, not in a God who concerns himself with fates and actions of human beings.''
Einstein and God (by Thomas Torrance)
(see also my query On Einstein's Religious Views)

Francis Bacon, Essays
``It is true, that a little philosophy inclineth man's mind to atheism, but depth in philosophy bringeth men's minds about to religion.''

``A year spent in artificial intelligence is enough to make one believe in God.'' (Alan Perlis, Computer scientist)

``I rejoice that the sacred scriptures of our faith portray a God who listens to prayer, who loves us and longs to lead us. I rejoice that my chosen line of work, mathematics, has enabled me to bring into being new things that did not exist before, and to greet with wonder and awe many amazing inventions of my fellow workers. I rejoice that daily we live immersed in infinity, that we have the freedom not only to make choices but at times to be the agent, by will or by grace, to sing to the Lord a new song.'' (Edward Nelson, Mathematics professor, Princeton)

Quotes relating science and faith (collected by Aaron Romanowsky, an astrophysicist)

From the Templeton prize lecture of Freeman Dyson (a phycisist):
''Religious creationists and scientific materialists are equally dogmatic and insensitive. By their arrogance they bring both science and religion into disrepute. The media exaggerate their numbers and importance. The media rarely mention the fact that the great majority of religious people belong to moderate denominations that treat science with respect, or the fact that the great majority of scientists treat religion with respect so long as religion does not claim jurisdiction over scientific questions.''

``Brothers, think of what you were when you were called. Not many of you were wise by human standards; not many were influential; not many were of noble birth. But God chose the foolish things of the world to shame the wise; God chose the weak things of the world to shame the strong. He chose the lowly things of this world and the despised things--and the things that are not--to nullify the things that are, so that no one may boast before him.''
((1 Cor. 1:26-29)

40 percent of U.S. scientists believe in a personal God and an afterlife, according to an article by Larson and Witham in Nature, April 3, 1997. Among the (more prominent) members of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, only 7 percent believe in a personal creator (Larson and Whitham, Nature, July 1998). (See also God and the Scientists)


The Fellowship of Scientists
``The Fellowship of Scientists is a group of scientists who endeavor to support each other as they seek a greater understanding of and a deeper commitment to the vocation of scientist as one form of Christian service.
To help members in their daily reading and reflection, the handbook of the Fellowship includes an annotated bibliography and over a hundred short readings ... drawn from books listed in the annotated bibliography to offer an introduction to them.''

Christians in Science, a list of organizations

Society of Ordained Scientists

Words of Hope for Chinese Students and Scholars
``The Mandate contains powerful salvation testimonies from Chinese scholars as well as incisive articles relating to biblical civil government, economics, education, and business.''

Affiliation of Christian Biologists

Affiliation of Christian Geologists

Basic Information

Augustine on Genesis
If they [the infidel] find a Christian mistaken in a field which they themselves know well and hear him maintaining his foolish opinions about our books, how are they going to believe those books in matters concerning the resurrection of the dead, the hope of eternal life, and the kingdom of heaven, when they think their pages are full of falsehoods and on facts which they themselves have learnt from experience and the light of reason?

A history of the warfare of science with theology in Christendom (1500K; by Andrew Dickson White)

Theology and Science: Where Are We? (by Ted Peters)
``A revolution is underway, a revolution adding complexity and nuance so that it is no longer accurate to see science and theology merely as pitched enemies.''

Catholic Perspectives

Pope John Paul II on Galileo Galilei

Fides et Ratio (Pope John Paul II on the relationship between faith and reason)
and Statements on science and faith, from the Catechism of the Catholic Church

Reconciling Old Lovers: John Paul on Science and Faith (by Michael Sherwin)

Luther and Science (by Donald Kobe, a physicist)

Psychology and Christianity

Psychology of Religion Page (by Michael Nielsen)

God and Computers (by Anne Foerst)

``Doesn't the Bible say that knowledge will be "destroyed"? Isn't it "incomplete"? Doesn't it "puff up"? And then there's the "tree of"! But aren't we also told to "look/ask/seek for it and walk in it"?''

Mathematics and Christianity

Begründet glauben
``Ich habe dir schon erklärt, daß noch viele andere mit mir diese Überzeugung teilen, aber andererseits habe ich dir schon angedeutet, dass viele, die zum ungetrübten und gottesfürchtigen Glauben gehören, und wahre Christen sind, anders darüber denken.'' (Justin, 160 n.Chr.)

Textsammlung Naturwissenschaft des Institut für Glaube und Naturwissenschaft

The stars are constantly shining, but we do not see them until the dark hours.

Course Material

Science and the Sacred

God, Physics and The Human Prospect
``This course will explore the deeper dialogue between Science and Theology rather than concentrating on what are perceived as areas of controversy between Science and Theology.''

The Darwinian Revolution

3:16 Bible Texts Illuminated (a beautiful book by Donald Knuth, a computer scientist, inventor of TeX)

Religion and Science (Wabash guide to internet resources for teaching and learning in theology and religion)

Physics and Faith

Science and Faith Discussion Groups

Witness in the Academy, a Conference for Christian Graduate Students and Faculty, New Hampshire, February 7-9, 1997,

Naturalism, Theism and the Scientific Enterprise, a conference at the University of Texas at Austin, Feb. 20-23, 1997 (with online papers)

Lists of Links

Google on Christianity and Science

Science and Faith Web Pages

On Christianity
My attempt to select the most basic references on Christianity and its opponents, from the huge amount of information on the internet.

Religion and Science: General Links (collected by James McGrath)

Interdisciplinary documentation on religion and science

CTNS, center for theology and the natural sciences

The Faraday Institute for Science and Religion

The BioLogos Forum


Bibliography on the Integration of Faith and Scholarship

Annotated Bibliography of the Fellowship of Scientists

Annotated Science/Faith Bibliography

World Wide Article Bank: Science Theology (some online articles)

Prominent Lectures and Prizes

Gifford Lectures ``promote and diffuse the study of Natural Theology in the widest sense of the term - in other words, the knowledge of God''

John Templeton Foundation and The Templeton Prize For Progress Toward Research or Discoveries about Spiritual Realities

Six lectures about interactions between faith and computer science by Donald E. Knuth

Essays I

It has always seemed to me extreme presumptuousness on the part of those who want to make human ability the measure of what nature can and knows how to do, since, when one comes down to it, there is not one effect in nature, no matter how small, that even the most speculative minds can fully understand.
(Galileo Galilei)
(from Steve Spanoudis' excellent Quotations pages with over 17.500 quotes)

The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics (by R.W. Hamming, one of the founders of information theory)
''We have the illusion that science has answers to most of our questions, but this is not so. From the earliest of times man must have pondered over what Truth, Beauty, and Justice are. But so far as I can see science has contributed nothing to the answers, nor does it seem to me that science will do much in the near future. [...] Indeed, to generalize, almost all of our experiences in this world do not fall under the domain of science or mathematics.''

Is Science a Help or Threat to Faith? (by J.P. Moreland)

The Foolishness of God, The Place of Reason in the Theology of Martin Luther (by Siegbert W. Becker)

Religion in an Age of Science by John Polkinghorne (a mathematical physicist)

God's Action in the World
by John Polkinghorne (a mathematical physicist)

Science and Faith
a commentary by the physicist J. A. H. Futterman on Einstein's famous statement, ``science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind''.

Science and the Story that We Need (by Neil Postman)
``The science-god ... is a mighty god and, like more ancient ones, gives people a measure of control over their lives. Some say the science-god gives more control and more power than any other god before it. But in the end, science does not provide the answers most of us require.''

Is the Watchmaker Really Blind? (by John Lennox, a mathematician)

There is something 'beyond' the physical universe (by Glenn Miller)
``...many of these people are right on target--they have established a relationship with God, He is quietly at work in their lives, they generally have the right perspectives, they struggle with moral issues daily, and they really care deeply for others--but often they do not know how to communicate--to people like us--the 'what, why, and how' of their worldview /experience, as wonderful as it is. ...often they are not able to explain what the real issues and options are in everyday terms. Instead they use terms like 'redemption' and 'Savior' and 'heaven' and 'Ask Jesus into your heart' and 'open the door of your life to God'...and expect us to know what they mean (and then to believe it).''

The authority of the Bible in a sophisticated world (by F. Earle Fox)
``Suppose someone came to us with a copy of the Koran, and someone else with a copy of the Bhagavad-Gita, and another with the Bible, each claiming that his book was the true word from God. How would we know who was telling the truth? Or if indeed any of them were? It is no help to assert that the Bible says it is the Word of God. The other books may also say that. How then do we decide between them? Moreover, an argument that uses the item in question to prove itself is a circular argument. The book must have evidence not only from its own internal consistency but also from its relevance to the human situation and from external evidence.''

The West's quest for a post-modern cosmology or world view (by Miles Hodges, a former professor of international studies)
``It was only when I began to take a deep interest in our American Civil War that I realized how profoundly our national "cosmology" or view of our universe had changed over the past century or so. ... I seldom hear God brought into the discussions about the course of events and the outworking of policies that involve us in one way or another.''

Science and God: A Warming Trend? (by Greg Easterbrook)

Paul - Apostle with a good skeptical 'bent'... (by Glenn Miller)

Christian Skepticism, the conjunction of Faith and Doubt (by John Cassidy)

The Existence of God (from the Catholic Encyclopedia)

Der Faktor Mensch im Software Engineering (Software Engineering mit Prinzipien aus dem Neuen Testament, von Andreas Solymosi, Informatiker)

Where Was God on September 11th, 2001?

Physicist and Christian: a dialogue between the communities (by William Grosvenor Pollard, a physicist)

Christian faith and science Essays and web-links by Loren Haarsma (a physicist) about integrating: The teachings of the Bible and the results of modern science, and The life of Christian faith and the everyday work of being a scientist

``It seems to be one of the fundamental features of nature that fundamental physical laws are described in terms of mathematical theory of great beauty and power, needing quite a high standard of mathematics for one to understand it. You may wonder: Why is nature constructed along these lines? One can only answer that our present knowledge seems to show that it is so constructed. We simply have to accept it. One could perhaps describe the situation by saying that God is a mathematician of a very high order, and He used very advanced mathematics in constructing the universe. Our feeble attempts at mathematics enable us to understand a bit of the universe, and as we proceed to develop higher and higher mathematics we can hope to understand the universe better.''
(Paul Dirac)

Essays II

Science and Religion: Lessons from History? (by John Brooke, a historian)

A Designer Universe? (by Stephen Weinberg, Nobel prize winner in Physics, 1979)

Is Science Killing The Soul? (by Richard Dawkins & Steven Pinker)

The Myth of the Magical "Scientific Method" (a perceptive essay from the Buddhist Dharma Haven site)

God and the big bang - and other arguments about science and faith (by Mike Poole, a biologist and editor of life sciences books)
An illuminating essay about explanations

The Kalam Cosmological Argument: A summary (by Bill Ramey)
An annotated bibliography about the argument ``Everything that begins to exist has a cause. The universe began to exist. Therefore: the universe has a cause. Those arguing this position then usually go on to argue that this cause is God.''

The Argument From Design (by Dennis McCallum)

The Existence of God and the Beginning of the Universe (by William Lane Craig)

Chance from a Theistic Perspective (by Loren Haarsma)

The Truth is Stranger than Fiction (texts collected by Hugh Ross, an astrophysicist)

Faith & Reason Ministries, Reconciling Christianity with Accepted Science

The Existence of God (by Larry Siekawitch)

Essays by Hans Bodlaender (a mathematician)

Karl Giberson and Francis Collins, The Language of Science and Faith (a recent book)

Essays III

The Best of Both Worlds: A Study in the Complementarity of Science and Christianity (by Richard Dimery)

Scientific Evidence for the Existence of God (by Walter Bradley, mechanical engineer)
`` I have discovered many additional areas in which alternative evidences for the existence of God can be found, persuading me of two things: (1) God's fingerprints are ubiquitous in his creation, giving "clear evidence of his eternal power and divine nature through the things that have been created" (Romans 1:19-20); and (2) almost anyone who works in a field of science could potentially develop a presentation of this type in their area of expertise.
... It is a shame so much of the dialogue of the last 35 years between Christianity and science has centered on the age of the earth and creation science. It has left the average person, Christian and nonChristian alike, with the impression that modern science and the Bible are seriously at odds, maybe irreconcilably so.''

Worship - a scientist's approach (by Cyril Challice)
[as a sideline, this essay contains the following remark: ``... Psalm 111, the second verse of which, in the Latin version, is engraved over the entrance to one of the most significant physics laboratories in the world, the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge, in England. It is believed they were put there at the request of Professor James Clerk Maxwell, who was responsible for developing the mathematical equations which are the basis of modern electrical engineering.'']

Ways to Think about Christianity and Science Together (by Ben Clausen, a geologist and physicist)

Religion And Science: Must There Be Conflict? (by William Wallace), and other essays on Science and Faith

Has science disproved Christianity? (by Nick Pollard)

Christianity: A Cause of Modern Science? (by Eric Snow)

Christianity, Evidence and Truth (by Roger Forster and Paul Marston)

The Soul of Science: Christian Faith and Natural Philosophy (by Pearcey and Thaxton)

When Science and Beliefs Collide (by Janet Raloff)

God and Science (an online book by by Charles Henderson)

God and Science (by Jacques Maritain)

Science Christianity United (by Gordon Winder)

Creation, Evolution and Adam (by Ed)

The Future of Religion FAQ (by Richard S. Kirby and Jay E. Gary)
``faith: knowledge without justification''

God After Darwin (by John Haught)

A biblical view of mathematics

Deutsche Texte - Texts in German Language

Mathematik, Physik und Ewigkeit (mit einem Augenzwinkern betrachtet)

Gedanken zum Leben als Christ (einige meiner Gedanken)

Die -Ex- Atheisten (von Hans Joss)

Begründet glauben
Ein Netzwerk für Fragen und Antworten über den christlichen Glauben

Ist Gott ein Mathematiker? (von Dieter Hattrup)

Naturwissenschaft und christlicher Glaube (vom Evangeliumsnetz)

Wahrheit und Wissen in der Mathematik (von Manfred Zimmermann)

Ethos der Wissenschaft

Zwischen Mensch und Gott. Naturwissenschaft und Theologie (von Werner Müller)

Institut fü Glaube und Wissenschaft (mit vielen interessanten Texten)


My Own Views

Knowledge, Chance, and Creation, an essay on some basic insights that distinguish my point of view from that of many others

I Am Really Fascinated by Jesus Christ... ... but My Doubts Are Way Too Noisy to be Silenced
(Does one need to throw one's brain out of the window in order to be a Christian?)

If you want to be a messenger of Christ at your university, you may want to look at my experience in Sharing One's Faith at University

Scientific Proofs of Authenticity

To find out what I find important as a Christian, see my views on the Christian way of life, many of them composed with scientists as readers in mind, and If you are interested in other topics related to Christian faith, look at my commented links to WWW sites on Christianity and its opponents.

Artificial Intelligence, Mathematics, and Consciousness
(slides relating artificial intelligence and theology)

How to Create a Universe - Instructions for an Apprentice God

Some of my essays in German:

Gedanken zum Leben als Christ

Mathematik, Physik und Ewigkeit (mit einem Augenzwinkern betrachtet)

Parallelen Wissenschaft - Glauben (notiert beim Lesen von H. Poincarè, Der Wert der Wissenschaft, Teubner 1910)


The Case Against the Codes (random numerology, or how not to do statistics)

Scientific Refutation of the Bible Codes (by Brendan McKay)

Bibliography of Christianity and Mathematics

Skeptical Views

The Christian Coprolalia of Arnold Neumaier by someone with a concept of God that makes him fail to comprehend why I write web pages like this one. Thus he turns me like all Christian thinkers into sociopaths - the only category that he can fit people like me. They had said that also of Jesus (Mark 3:21); but Jesus wasn't impressed, knowing it was a misunderstanding. And he predicted that we'll be called names just like he was (Matthew 10:25-26).

Has Science Found God? (by Victor Stenger, a physicist)

Godless Science

Islam and Science

Islamic Civilizatio

Muslim Scientists and Thinkers

Islam & Science, with mainly questionable arguments (I reviewed one of the essays found on the Islam & Science server)

Christian and Muslim Science and Faith Web Pages

More Links

Philosophical Health Check

Seven reasons why a scientist believes in God by A. Cressy Morrison, former president of the New York Academy of Sciences.
The site contains further material from a hinduistic perspective.

What is and what will be - integrating spirituality and science by Paul Budnik

Science Without Bounds, A Synthesis of Science, Religion and Mysticism
``In 1970 I was twenty-two and looking for something to believe in, something to make sense of the world and my place in it, a world view. Years of religious elementary and high school had left me with a dislike of religion, a distaste for it's irrationality, superstition, and guilt. Science had been much more to my liking; I had gone to a state university and just received a degree in electrical engineering. Yet religion had addressed, however ineptly, however superstitiously, some questions science ignored. What was my place in the world? Where had I come from? and Where was I going? Certainly these questions were as important to me as the voltage and current in an electrical circuit. In the following years I attempted to find answers to those questions...'' (The answers found are not Christian.)

In the Absence of the Sacred: The Failure of Technology and the Survival of the Indian Nations (Jerry Mander)

Embracing Science. Christianity in the Twenty-First Century

International Society for Environmental Ethics

Work ethics

Look at how God rules the universe, and do likewise! (cf. Matthew 5:48)

Some of my Other Pages

My Views on the Christian Way of Life
Questions I'd like to know an answer to
Christians in Science
Science and Creation
On Christianity
Challenging Essays on Christian Life
Links to Christian Resources
Famous Christians
Home Pages of Christians
Recreation with a Christian Touch
Gedanken zum Leben als Christ
Christentum Seiten in Deutsch
my home page (

Arnold Neumaier (